Glossary

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Adult Rider Program
Often just shortened to “Adult Riders” The Adult Rider program is for any USEA member age 22 years and older. The mission of the program is to increase adult rider participation in eventing by providing education and recognition and offering communication and camaraderie.
Advanced Level
The Advanced Level is the highest national level of Horse Trials. It offers tests of significant difficulty designed to prepare competitors and horses for either Three or Four Star Events. The dressage test may include extensions in all three paces, half pass at the trot and canter, and single flying changes. The cross-country should be clearly a test of boldness and scope as it now combines size (3’11) with technical difficulty. Combinations with multiple questions are to be expected, such as bounces into water, coffins with short distances or significant slopes, and bending lines or related distances between narrow questions. The jumping course will similarly relate virtually all obstacles, distances and turns with jumps up to 4’11”. Synonyms: Advanced
Affiliates
The USEA Eventing Affiliates are organizations throughout the US that promote eventing in their local communities. Many of them host schooling shows, clinics, and educational activities for their members and eventers in the area. A complete list of the USEA Eventing Affiliates and their contact information is available on the affiliate page on the USEA website.
Amateur
USEA members must declare their amateur status upon reaching his/her 18th birthday. A member may compete as an amateur as long as he/she accepts no money for riding, showing, training, schooling, or conducting clinics or seminars.
American Eventing Championships
The USEA American Eventing Championships are the national championships for the sport of eventing. The AEC offers Beginner Novice through Advanced Levels with divisions for amateurs, juniors, and professionals. The location of the AEC changes every three years. The first AEC was held at the Carolina Horse Park in 2004. Synonyms: AEC
Area
The USEA is divided into 10 areas. Each area has its own governing body and organizes activities for its members. The areas must abide by the rules of the USEA. Synonyms: Areas
Area I
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont
Area II
New Jersey, Eastern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and North Carolina
Area III
Tennessee, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Eastern Louisiana and Florida
Area IV
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota and Wisconsin
Area IX
Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, South Dakota and Idaho
Area V
Arkansas, Louisiana (Western Half), Oklahoma and Texas
Area VI
California and Hawaii
Area VII
Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana and Alaska
Area VIII
Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, West Virginia and Western Pennsylvania
Area X
Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada
Arrowhead
A type of cross-country fence. Arrowheads are also called chevrons, and are shaped like triangles, with the point facing towards the ground. They tend to be very narrow, usually only a few feet wide.
ASTM/SEI
Organizations that certify riding helmets. The ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is an organization comprised of thousands of skilled volunteers including doctors, engineers, and physicists. It is the job of the ASTM to set standards for many types of safety equipment. The ASTM has created criteria for horseback riding helmets to adhere to. These standards are summarized in ASTM F 1163. The SEI (Safety Equipment Institute) is an independent laboratory that tests helmets to be sure they meet the ASTM standard.
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Bank Jump
Bank jumps are steps up or down from one level to another, and can be single jumps or built as a "staircase" of multiple banks.
Beginner Novice Level
The Beginner Novice level is designed to introduce green horses and riders to Horse Trials, combining dressage, cross-country and Beginner jumping tests. It is designed for competitors and horses that have already had experience schooling competitions in all three disciplines. The entire experience should be safe, inviting and educational to build confidence and a desire to progress. Competitors should be prepared to do a walk, trot and canter dressage test with 20-meter figures and a halt. The cross-country should include a variety of introductory obstacles, including a bank-up, a shallow natural ditch, an inviting water crossing and a brush. Obstacles must have a minimum of two strides between two numbered obstacles. Such combinations of straight forward efforts are the only obstacles composed of several elements that are permitted. The jumping course should be inviting and straightforward and may include one double of two strides. Jumps can reach the height of 2’7”. Synonyms: Beginner Novice
Beginner Novice Non-Member Voucher
As a non-member you may participate in USEA recognized events at the Beginner Novice level and pay a $25.00 Beginner Novice non-member fee per competition in lieu of holding an annual USEA membership.
Bit Check
The area of the dressage warm-up where riders are required to get their bit, spurs, and whip checked to make sure they are allowed within USEF rules.
Blue Ribbon Awards
The Blue Ribbon Horse and Rider Achievement Program is continuing the USEA's mission to recognize its members for the high level of success attained in the sport of eventing. The Blue Ribbon Program can be a stepping stone to achieving the Eventing Medals and then heading to the top of the leaderboard. The USEA will automatically post the names of Blue Ribbon qualified horses and riders on the awards section of the USEA website on a weekly basis. Award certificates will also be sent out monthly to each rider who achieves the appropriate qualifications.
Bounce
A bounce, also called a no-stride, is a fence combination sometimes found on the cross-country course of eventing. It consists of two fences placed close together so the horse cannot take a full stride between them, but not so close that the horse would jump both fences at once. The horse "bounces" between the two jumps, landing with his hind legs before immediately taking off with his front legs.
Brush Jump
Brush jumps consist of a solid base with brush placed on top, generally low enough for the horse to see over. The horse is supposed to jump through the brush in a flat jump, rather than over the top of it in a more rounded arc. Brush fences are also used for steeplechase racing. This type of fence is closely related to the bullfinch.
Bullfinch
This fence has a solid base with several feet of brush protruding out of the top of the jump up to six feet high. The horse is supposed to jump through the brush, rather than over it.
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CCI
Concours Complet International (CCI) is an international three-day event that is governed by the FEI. CCI Competitions are held under FEI rules for Three Day Events, including the General Rules and Veterinary Regulations. They are international three-day events, as opposed to a national competition or a one- or two-day horse trial. Synonyms: Concours Complet International
Chef d’Equipe
The coach of the national eventing team.
CIC
Concours International Combiné (CIC) is a FEI horse trials. The CIC may be held over one day, and is thus considered an international one-day event. However, it must follow FEI rules. The CIC is held only at the one to three-star levels. Synonyms: Concours International Combiné
Classic Format
The traditional long-format of eventing which includes roads and tracks (Phases A and C) and steeplechase (Phase B) on endurance day. The Classic Format is currently being held at the Training and Preliminary levels.
Closing Date
The closing date is the Tuesday four weeks after opening date. Effective with the 2010 Eventing Rules, the Closing Date is no longer permitted to be extended. However, organizers may accept post entries after the closing date.
Coffin
Also called the rails-ditch-rails, the coffin is a combination fence where the horse jumps a set of rails, continues to a ditch, then to another jump.
Combination
Groups of banks, logs, water, ditches and other elements. All of the jumps are placed within one to three strides of each other, and are meant to be jumped as a series in a specific order. Combinations are named by their number of elements. Double and triple combinations are the most common. In general, the more elements involved, the more difficult the obstacle.
Combined Test
A combined test is a competition which encompasses dressage and show jumping, but leaves out the cross country phase.
Corner
Corner fences are a triangular shape with the horse jumping over one corner of the triangle. They are similar to the "fan" jump seen in show-jumping. The corner is a precision fence, requiring accurate riding and good training, with the horse straight and between the rider's aids.
Course Designer
The Course Designer is responsible for the layout measurement, preparation, and marking of the route for the Cross-Country Test of Horse Trials and Events. Course Designers are also typically responsible for the design and construction of all obstacles used in the Test. The Course Designer must be selected from the current roster of Eventing Course Designers of the Federation, or must have received training as a course designer.
Course Map
The map handed out by the organizer which shows the route and all of the elements on each cross-country course.
Cross-Country
The second phase of an event which involves the horse and rider galloping over natural terrain, jumping a variety of fixed obstacles along the way.
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Dangerous Riding
Any competitor who rides in such a way as to constitute a hazard to the safety or wellbeing of the competitor, horse, other competitors, their horses, spectators, or others will penalized accordingly. Any act or series of actions that in the opinion of the Ground Jury can be defined as dangerous riding shall be penalized by 25 penalties or elimination and/or the issuance of a Warning Card, at the discretion of the Ground Jury.
Dashboard
The online services system of the USEA that is used to process payments of memberships and other activities.
Developing Riders
The USEF’s Eventing Developing Rider Program is available to riders of any age who aspire to compete at the highest levels of the sport. To qualify, each horse/rider combination must have completed a CCI** or above. Precedence is given to riders without prior team experience. Riders can apply or be selected by talent spotters.
Disqualification
Disqualification means that a competitor and his horse(s) may not take further part in the Event. It is applied at the discretion of the Ground Jury.
Ditch
An element seen on many cross-country courses. They may be up to 11 feet, 10 inches wide in advanced competition, although they are seen at lesser widths at all levels of competition. They can be used individually, or in combinations such as the coffin and trakehner fences.
Double Entries
An entry made for two horses in one division in which only one horse is to compete, with an office fee for the second horse. The horse that will not compete must be declared when the competitor receives their number.
Dressage
The first phase of eventing shows the horse and rider’s ability to perform a series of prescribed classical movements on the flat in an enclosed arena.
Drop Fence
These fences ask the horse to jump over a log fence and land at a lower level than the one at which they took off. They are closely related to the bank fences.
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Element
Also known as an obstacle, one jump or part of a cross-country or show jumping combination.
Elimination
Elimination can be enforced due to many different circumstances. A rider who has been eliminated may not continue on with the competition except with permission of the Ground Jury.
Endurance
The second day of a classic long format event which consists of Roads and Tracks, Steeplechase, and Cross-Country.
Error
A mistake made in the performance of the dressage test. The first error is penalized by 2 points, the second by 4, and the third results in Elimination. This term also applies to cross-country involving compulsory passages and obstacles that must be passed or jumped in order under penalty of elimination, would be considered a technical elimination.
Eventing 2.0
The USEA’s unique online multimedia magazine which supplements the award-winning print magazine, Eventing USA. This digital publication hosts original content including videos, interviews, timely articles, results, and more, all featuring superior quality and specialized catering to USEA members equaling that of the print magazine.
Eventing USA
Eventing USA is the official publication of the United States Eventing Association and is available to USEA members. Eventing USA is published six time a year and this four-color, glossy magazine is the only publication of its kind you'll find devoted solely to the sport of eventing in the United States.
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FEI
The FEI is the sole authority for all international events in Dressage, Para-Equestrian Dressage, Jumping, Eventing, Driving, Para-Equestrian Driving, Endurance, Vaulting and Reining. It is an umbrella organization that works in conjunction with the National Federations of each member country to regulate and govern the equestrian disciplines named above. Membership in the FEI is open to the one national governing body from any country which is effectively in control of or is in a position to effectively control at least the Olympic Equestrian Disciplines, and preferably recognized by its National Olympic Committee. Synonyms: Federation Equestre Internationale
Frangible Pins
A Frangible Pin is a breakable pin installed in certain cross-country jumps with the precise failure strength which allowed the rail to drop thereby stopping the horse from rotating or somersaulting. This means the horse can hit the rail fairly hard without the fence collapsing and still keep its feet, but if the critical load is reached, the pin would fail with the potential of minimizing risk of injury to both horse and rider.
Full Member
A member of the USEA who has all membership benefits including the ability to compete at recognized competitions.
Future Event Horse
The Future Event Horse (FEH) series was introduced in 2007 and focuses on yearlings, two-year-olds, and three-year-olds, and judging the potential they have to become a successful event horse. Each age group is judged separately, and genders within the age group are judged separately when the number of entries allows. In order to compete in FEH classes, horses must be registered with the USEA, but a special rate of $25 is available for owners who may not want to register the horse fully yet. Synonyms: FEH
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Gold Cup
In the Adequan USEA Gold Cup Series horses and riders achieve points together as a pair by competing in Gold Cup events. Gold Cups take place at eight to ten of the top venues around the country each year. First place winners take home 200 points for their win, and can also earn bonus points: 50 extra points for double-clear cross-country rounds, and 40 extra points for double-clear show jumping rounds. At the end of the year the rider with the most points takes home $10,000 and becomes keeper of the Gold Cup.
Ground Jury
The Ground Jury is ultimately responsible for the judging of the event and for settling all problems that may arise during its jurisdiction. If, after consultation with the Technical Delegate, the Ground Jury is not satisfied with the arrangements or courses, it is authorized to modify them.
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High Performance Squad
Divided into A and B squads, the High Performance Squad is made up of riders who receive additional training and grants from the US in preparation for major international competitions.
Hog’s Back
A type of spread fence with three rails where the tallest pole is in the center.
Hors Concours
A competitior who enters an event hors concours will pay the regular entry fee, will be judged in the normal manner, and will be participating in accordance with the rules, but they will not be counted in the final standings. Competitors may enter horses hors concours with the permission of the Organizer. Synonyms: HC
Horse Inspection
A Horse Inspection or Jog is required at CCI and CIC competitions. The first one takes place before the Dressage Test, normally the day before and the second before the Show Jumping phase. They are conducted by the Ground Jury and the Veterinary Delegate acting together as a committee with the President of the Ground Jury in charge. The horses must be inspected in hand, at rest and in movement on a firm level, clean but not slippery surface. The committee has the right and the duty to eliminate from the competition any horse that they judge is unfit, whether on account of lameness, lack of condition or for any other reason. Synonyms: Jog
Horse Registration
Horses a required to be registered with the USEA in order to compete at the Novice level and higher. Riders who wish to qualify for the American Eventing Championships or the Leaderboard at Beginner Novice are also required to register their horse. Horse Registration is a one-time fee and is made using the Horse Life Registration form found on the USEA website or through Dashboard.
Horse Trial
A Horse Trials is a national competition run under the rules of the USEF. Horse Trials may take place over one to three days. Internationally, the term is CNC. “N” meaning national.
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Instructor Certification Program
The USEA Instructors' Certification Program is a professional education and certification program for instructors of event riding, competing, and horse care. The six levels of ICP certification correspond to the levels of national and international competition from Novice through Advanced and from CIC* through CIC3* and Training Level 3-Day Event through CCI4*. Synonyms: ICP
Intermediate Level
The Intermediate Level is an examination of increasing technical difficulty,preparing competitors and horses for Two Star Events. The dressage test may include canter to halt and walk to canter transitions, as well as turns on the haunches, simple changes, and counter canter. The cross-country should now combine in more elaborate settings the tests introduced at the Preliminary Level, such as combinations with more than one question to be solved. Obstacles to be expected include banks, ditches, or water with narrow elements, a bounce combined with other elements, or corners in a combination. The jumping course will include more related distances, and emphasis will be placed on lines of obstacles with jumps up to 3’11”. Synonyms: Intermediate
Intro to Eventing Clinics
The Intro To Eventing Clinic Series was started in 2008 as a way for riders from all disciplines to get a taste of eventing. An Intro To Eventing Clinic will have a very welcoming atmosphere that will introduce the basic skills of Eventing in a no-pressure environment.
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Jump Judge
A volunteer at each jump on the cross-country course who is responsible to assess penalties at jumps, respond in case of emergency, and ensure that the area around the jump is clear when each competitor approaches.
Junior
A competitor is considered a Junior through the end of the calendar year of their 18th birthday. Juniors are eligible for a Membership discount and to compete in designated Junior divisions at competitions.
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Leaderboard
The top riders in the country in various categories are tracked via a point system. The top horses and riders on USEA Leaderboard earn prizes at the end of the year.
Life Member
A lifetime member of the USEA who has all membership benefits including the ability to compete at recognized competitions. A life member pays a one-time fee of $1,500 and is considered a current member for the duration of their life.
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Medal Program
Program provided by the USEA that recognizes the accomplishments of our members at the various levels of competition.
Medical Armband
A current USEA medical armband is required to be worn by the rider in both the cross-country and show jumping phases of USEA recognized competitions. The armband contains valuable medical information in the event of an injury to the competitor.
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Non-Competing Member
A member of the USEA who does not compete in recognized horse trials but still wishes to be part of the USEA community. A Non-Competing member receives all of the benefits and perks of a Full member except the ability to compete.
Normandy Bank
A Normandy bank is a combination of obstacles. A ditch precedes the bank, so the horse must jump over the ditch and onto the bank in one leap. There is also a solid fence on the top of the bank, which may produce a drop fence to get off the obstacle, or may allow for a stride off. Because this obstacle incorporates several different types of obstacles into one, it is considered quite difficult, and is usually not seen until the upper levels. The rider not only has to worry about a bold jump over the ditch and onto the bank, but also the obstacle on the top of the bank and the quick jump off.
Novice Level
The Novice Level is a continuing introduction to Horse Trials. It is designed for competitors and horses with some experience at lower levels or for experienced riders and horses new to the sport. The dressage will not differ greatly from Beginner Novice. The cross-country will invite bold, forward movement involving galloping in balance and jumping out of stride. The obstacles will be more substantial and may include a drop, a double, and a simple obstacle out of water. At such water obstacles, the exit shall not be revetted. The jumping course shall include a double and a variety of straight and spread fences, which may include a triple bar. Jumps can be up to the height of 2’11”.
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Obstacle
Also known as an element, one jump or part of a cross-country or show jumping course.
Officials
USEA Officials are key to ensuring that events run smoothly and are up to the rigorous standards of the USEA and USEF. Eventing Officials include Judges, Technical Delegates, and Course Designers and are licensed by the USEF at the “r”, “R”, and FEI levels.
Omnibus
The USEA Omnibus provides everything you need to know about all the recognized events throughout the U.S. The Omnibus is where you will find a calendar of events so you can choose the best events for you to compete in. The Omnibus can be accessed on the USEA website or purchased on the USEA webstore.
Opening Date
Opening date is the first day an event entry can be legally postmarked or time stamped. It occurs on the Tuesday six weeks prior to the first day of competition.
Optimum Time
The distance divided by the designated speed gives the optimum time. Completing the course in less than the optimum time results in zero time penalties. A competitor exceeding the optimum time will be penalized.
Organizer
Event organizers are responsible for the set up and running of events.
Overtaking
Passing the competitor in front of you on the cross-country course. Any competitor who is about to be overtaken by a following competitor must quickly clear the way. Any competitor overtaking another competitor must do so only at a safe and suitable place.
Oxer
An oxer is a type of jump with two rails that may be set even or uneven. The width between the poles may vary. There are several types of oxers including ascending, descending, parallel, square, swedish, and triple bar.
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Palisade
A palisade is a fence on a slight 45 degree angle, which leans into the direction you are jumping it. This fence can easily be made more technical by the addition of a ditch in front, so that both the ditch and palisade have to be jumped at the same time.
Preliminary Level
The Preliminary Level is a moderate examination of competitors and horses in a regular training program preparing for One Star Events. The dressage test may include medium paces at the trot and canter, as well as the introduction of leg yielding, shoulder in, rein back, and changes of lead through the trot. The cross-country should include tests of accuracy, agility, boldness, control, judgment and jumping ability. Obstacles may now include angled lines, corners, simple bounces, slopes, and combinations involving water or narrow fences. The jumping course shall include two doubles, or a double and a triple, and may incorporate alternative obstacles. It will emphasize quickness of recovery, and may require lengthening or shortening stride. Jumps can reach the height of 3’7”. Synonyms: Preliminary
Preliminary Three-Day
A long-format event held at the preliminary level. Synonyms: P3D, CCN1*
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Qualifying Results
Qualifying results are required to move up to certain levels and qualify for certain competitions. To achieve a qualifying result one must score not more than 50 penalty points in the Dressage Test (for FEI Dressage Tests, the score is no more than 75 penalty points); have no jumping penalties at obstacles on the Cross Country Test, and not more than 90 seconds (36 penalty points) exceeding the optimum time; and not more than 16 penalties at obstacles in the Jumping Test.
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Red Flag
Boundary flags that mark obstacles on the jump courses. The red flag must always remain on your right.
Refusal
A disobedience in which the horse resists going over the element. At obstacles or elements with height (exceeding 30 cm), a horse is considered to have refused if it stops in front of the obstacle to be jumped. At all other obstacles (i.e., 30 cm or less in height) a stop followed immediately by a standing jump is not penalized, but if the halt is sustained or in any way prolonged, this constitutes a refusal. The horse may step sideways but if it steps back, even with one foot, this is a refusal.
Rider Fall
A competitor is considered to have fallen when he is separated from his horse in such a way as to necessitate remounting or vaulting into the saddle. A fall results in elimination from the competition.
Roads and Tracks
Phases A and C on endurance day in a long format event. Phase A of the roads and tracks is a warming-up period, usually done at a brisk trot, for the purpose of relaxing and loosening up both horse and rider. In a Preliminary Three-Day Phase A (3,520-4,400 meters) is ridden at 220 meters per minute (mpm). The time range is between 16-20 minutes and the majority of the pace is at the trot with some canter sections to warm the horse up for the steeplechase. The track will lead directly to the start for Phase B, the steeplechase. At the end of the steeplechase, the horse and rider go directly into Phase C, the second roads and tracks. The ranges for this phase are between 4,400-6,600 meters at 220 mpm with the time allowed ranging from 20 to 30 minutes. This phase is very important for allowing the horse to relax and recover and to get his wind back to normal. The pace is usually a quiet trot, interspersed with periods of walking and an occasional relaxed canter. Some riders also dismount and run beside their horse during this phase. The end of Phase C brings the pair to the ten-minute Vet Box prior to starting out on Phase D, the cross-country.
Roll Top
A roll top has a rounded half-barrel appearance on top. They can be quite wide at upper levels, and often govern respect from the horse, but are not usually considered a "scary" fence for horses on course and generally produce a good jump.
Rulebook
The USEF Rules for Eventing are printed annually and apply to all USEA recognized competitions. The Rulebook is available for download on the USEA and USEF sites or can be purchased through the USEA Webstore.
Runout
A disobedience in which a horse avoids the obstacle or element in such a way that it has to be represented.
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Secretary
The secretary is responsible for the specific duties pertaining to records, entries, and on-going communications within the event structure during the event. The Secretary is the face of the event as they have the most contact with the competitors.
Senior
A division in events which is open to competitors from the beginning of the calendar year of their 19th birthday.
Show Jumping
The final phase of an event where horse and rider jump a series of fences in an enclosed arena. Synonyms: Stadium
Skinny
A skinny is any fence with a narrow face. These require accurate riding and the ability to keep the horse straight, as it is easy for a horse to "glance off" such narrow obstacles. Combinations involving skinnies become increasingly common as the rider moves up the levels.
Small Arena
The arena in which lower level eventing dressage tests are performed. The Small Arena measures 40 meterslong and 20 meters wide.
Speed Fault
For the Beginner Novice, Novice, and Training Levels, the distance divided by the speed fault speed gives the speed fault time. Completing the course in less than the optimum time is not penalized up to the speed fault time. Completing the course in less than the speed fault time will be penalized. Speed Faults encourage riders from completing cross-county too fast.
Standard Arena
Also known as a large arena, the dressage arena is 60 meters long and 20 meters wide. Typically Intermediate and Advanced level tests as well as CCI and CIC test are performed in a Standard Arena.
Steeplechase
Phase B on Endurance day in a long format event . In a Preliminary Three-Day the steeplechase phase is between 1,710 and 2,240 meters long and is ridden at a gallop (570-640 meters per minute) over five to seven brush jumps. At the end of the steeplechase, the horse and rider go directly into Phase C, the second roads and tracks.
Stewards
The duties of the stewarding team are to assist the Organizers, the Ground Jury, Technical Delegate and athletes in the conduct of the event according to the Rulebook. Specifically, but not exclusively, their duties cover planning and supervision of work in all exercise, practice, warm-up, and stable areas, checking of dress and saddlery, assistance with Horse examinations and Inspections.
Studs
Studs are traction devices screwed into the bottom of the horse’s shoe. Studs improve a horse's balance and grip over uneven or slippery terrain. The shoes are "tapped," or drilled, on either heel of the shoe, so that different studs may be applied as needed and changed according to the footing conditions and the type of work performed by the horse. Studs come in several sizes and types.
Sunken Road
These are combination jumps involving banks and rails. At the lower levels, it may consist of a bank down, with a few strides to a bank up. At the upper levels, the sunken road often is quite complicated, usually beginning with a set of rails, with either one stride or a bounce distance before the bank down, a stride in the "bottom" of the road before jumping the bank up, and another stride or bounce distance before the final set of rails. Sunken roads are very technical, especially at the upper levels, and require accurate riding.
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Table
A table is a fence with height and width, with the top of the table being a solid piece of material. Tables can get extremely wide, and generally test the horse's scope.
Technical Delegate
The Technical Delegate will approve the technical and administrative arrangements for the conduct of the event, for the examinations and inspections of horses, for the accommodation of horses and athletes and for the stewarding of the event. Synonyms: TD
Technical Elimination
Abbreviated as “TE” for the score sheets, technical elimination is to define an error strictly related to the actions of the rider; such as, but not limited to: entering the arena with prohibited saddlery; prohibited dress, missing a jump, mandatory flag or finish line, etc. Synonyms: TE
Ten-minute Box
The area set aside during a long format event where the veterinarian performs the mandatory check on horses having completed the steeplechase and roads and tracks before they head on to the final phase of cross-country.
Three-day Event
An equestrian event incorporating the three equestrian disciplines of dressage, cross-country and jumping in one series of tests for horse and rider. Each phase is held on a distinct day with the entire event lasting three or four days. Synonyms: Event
Time Limit
The time limit is twice the optimum time. A competitor exceeding the time limit will be eliminated.
Training Level
The Training Level is an elementary examination of competitors and horses with some experience and training. The dressage test may ask for further development of the basic gaits, including lengthening at the trot and canter, as well as 10-meter trot and 15-meter canter figures. The cross-country should include obstacles formed of two, or possibly three, elements involving the previously introduced banks, drops and ditches. Jumps into and out of water and narrow fences should be introduced. While these questions are becoming more sophisticated, they must remain positive and inviting in nature. The jumping course shall include two doubles or a triple, a variety of turns, and sequences of various types of obstacles. Jumps up to the height of 3’3”.
Training Three-Day
A long-format event held at the training level. Synonyms: T3D, Half-Star
Trakehner
A Trakehner consist of a rail over a ditch. Trakehners are first seen at training level. Trakehners were originally fencelines that were built in drainage ditches.
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United States Combined Training Association
United States Combined Training Association was the former name of the USEA. The name was changed in November, 2001. Synonyms: USCTA
United States Equestrian Federation
The United States Equestrian Federation is National Governing Body for Equestrian Sports in the US. It was formerly the American Horse Show Association. The USEF trains, selects, and funds the United States Equestrian Team which consistently wins medals at the highest level of international competition, including the Olympic Games. The USEF also licenses equestrian competitions of all levels across the United States each year. The USEF serves as the National Federation (NF) to the FEI and is a member of the US Olympic Committee. Synonyms: USEF, The Federation
United States Equestrian Team Foundation
The United States Equestrian Team Foundation supports equestrian athletes, promotes international excellence, and builds for the future of equestrian sports.The eight High Performance equestrian disciplines supported by the United States Equestrian Team Foundation are dressage, driving, endurance, eventing, para-equestrian, reining, show jumping and vaulting. Established as a not-for-profit organization, the USET Foundation's role is to help provide funding for the High Performance competition, training, coaching, travel and educational needs of America's elite and developing athletes and horses in partnership with the United States Equestrian Federation. Synonyms: USET
United States Eventing Association
The United States Eventing Association is the national organization dedicated to the education and development of horses and riders in the sport of eventing. The USEA was founded in 1959 and has approximately 14,000 members in all 50 United States in addition to over 100 international members. The USEA recognizes 260 competitions nationwide. The organization is a non-profit 501 C (3) corporation and is run by approximately 20 Board of Governors. The USEA also has a permanent staff of 17 who run the day to day needs of the organization from the headquarters in Leesburg, Virginia. Synonyms: USEA
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White Flag
Boundary flags that mark obstacles on the jump courses. The white flag must always remain on your left.
Willful Delay
A competitor is considered to have willfully delayed his finish if, between the last fence and the finish line, the horse halts, walks, circles, or serpentines. The competitor will be penalized at the discretion of the Ground Jury.
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Young Event Horse
The USEA Spalding Labs Young Event Horse Series gives owners and breeders the opportunity to showcase the potential of their four- and five-year-old horses. Young Event Horse classes focus on education and preparation of the event horse in a correct and progressive manner. Youngsters are asked to complete three sections: Conformation and Type; Dressage; Jumping Test/Gallop/General Impression. The ultimate goal of the Young Event Horse Series is to choose the youngster that possesses the talent and mind set, and who with proper training, will excel in the uppermost levels of the eventing world. Synonyms: YEH
Young Riders Program
The Young Riders program is offered through the USEA for riders 21 years of age and younger. The purpose of the program is to encourage our younger members to become involved in the sport of Eventing and perhaps continue this involvement into their adult lives.

Glossary Term

Phases A and C on endurance day in a long format event. Phase A of the roads and tracks is a warming-up period, usually done at a brisk trot, for the purpose of relaxing and loosening up both horse and rider. In a Preliminary Three-Day Phase A (3,520-4,400 meters) is ridden at 220 meters per minute (mpm). The time range is between 16-20 minutes and the majority of the pace is at the trot with some canter sections to warm the horse up for the steeplechase. The track will lead directly to the start for Phase B, the steeplechase. At the end of the steeplechase, the horse and rider go directly into Phase C, the second roads and tracks. The ranges for this phase are between 4,400-6,600 meters at 220 mpm with the time allowed ranging from 20 to 30 minutes. This phase is very important for allowing the horse to relax and recover and to get his wind back to normal. The pace is usually a quiet trot, interspersed with periods of walking and an occasional relaxed canter. Some riders also dismount and run beside their horse during this phase. The end of Phase C brings the pair to the ten-minute Vet Box prior to starting out on Phase D, the cross-country.